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Further, authors would like to acknowledge the Senate Research Committee SRC , University of Moratuwa for providing financial assistance to this research. Active tactile sensor for detecting contact force and hardness of an object. Cylindrical Arch Spring Structure 3. Characterisation of the Sensing Element A core component of the tactile sensor is the conductive polymer based sensing element and the performance of the tactile sensor mostly depends on the characteristics of the sensing element. Look up table, based on experimental values would be used to obtain force sensor readings from the sensor which also mitigated the nonlinearity of the sensor. The simplified analytical model is shown in the Figure 4 and it is equivalent to the proposed design seen in Figure 1. The design analysis methodology could be followed to design more sensors based on this design.

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Cylindrical arch spring structure was analytically modelled for further modifications.

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Open in a separate window. First, the conductive polymer pill was sliced into samples each with a thickness of 2—3 mm using a precision low speed saw and a diamond blade.

A mechanical press moulding method is used to develop the sensing element while the mould described under Figure 11 is designed into three layers to ease the ejection process of the sensing element from the mould.

Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript: Biomimetic Tactile Sensor Array. Tactile sensors based on conductive polymers.

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Focus on Tactile Force and Stress Sampatth. Henceforth, a large amount of research has been carried out on the subject of tactile sensing and numerous devices have been developed for different applications [ 278 ]. Table 1 shows the dimensions of the sensing element that was produced.


This novel wire piercing design method has significantly eased the routing provisions inside the sensor packaging, thus simplifying the packaging structure.

If the conductive rubber based piezoresistive force sensing element equips the intra-electron tunnelling effect, other than the classical percolation piezoresistivity, the sensitivity would be further enhanced. EDAX analysis shows the indirect evidence of a presence of nano-Silica SiO 2 that was used to enhance the conductivity of the polymer. Finally, single-component RTV Silicone rubber is added to the mixture using a shear-kneading machine.

This sensor sampayh a maximum applicable range of 90 N with a maximum structural deflection of 4 mm. Signal Conditioning and Data Acquisition The developed electrical circuit design Figure 18R v denotes the sensing element uses a micro controller based development board for further signal conditioning and controlling.

Equation 1 could be verified by the above results with an error percentage of 6. It hardly shows a hysteresis error and shows a significant repeatability due to small error bars that are present, which is a promising aspect in prospective applications. The sensor output characteristics graph with the variation of its standard deviation in Figure 22 was obtained using four consecutive load tests using the force indenter.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY license http: Characterisation of the Sensor 3D printed parts of 3v force sensor shown in Figure 10 and electrode embedded polymer pill were assembled Figure 19 a. Conductive rubber based piezoresistive force sensors have the benefits of good sensitivity, low noise, simplicity in electronics, low-cost manufacturing and physical flexibility of the sensing element.


The force sensor structure was also designed inclusive of an overload protection to the structure. How Much Have You Seen?

The thickness of the sensing element pills could be altered by the spacers that could be inserted into the mould as shown in Figure 12 a to make conductive polymer pills with different geometries as shown in Figure 12 b.

It is capable of varying the maximum applicable load by changing the pill thickness. The manufacturing method for the optimised conductive rubber is such that, at normal room temperature and pressure, the ECP-CB-1 high conductive carbon black and Si silane coupling agent are mixed together. Sa,path novel six-component force sensor of good measurement isotropy and sensitivities. Figure 8 and Figure 9 depicts the results of the parametric study and status of the prototyped nme arch spring structure.

In the analysis conducted for the single cylindrical arch spring Figure 6a force component is given to the topmost surface of the spring in order to calculate the maximum deformation. As for drawbacks, conductive rubber based piezoresistive force sensors are behaving nonlinearly in response to hysteresis, signal drift and temperature sensitivity [ 9 ].

Even though sensorised soft structure designs are included among contemporary research [ 2627 ], many drawbacks exist. Down 31, this week. A microcontroller-based signal conditioning circuit was introduced to the system for the purpose of acquiring data.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. A review of tactile sensing technologies with applications in biomedical engineering. The optimized structure was fabricated using the 3D printing technology.